Fecal transplantation involves obtaining stool from a healthy donor, and transferring it into the colon of the patient with the stubborn infection. The rationale is that the reintroduced “good” bacteria will replace the “bad” bacteria and allow for a full and complete recovery.
Treatment for all peptic ulcer patient infected with H. pylori was strongly recommended by the 1994 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference and the 1997 American Digestive Health Foundation (ADHF) International Update Conference on H. pylori. Recommended as appropriate goals for success of an eradication regimen were more than 90% on a “per-protocol” (PP) analysis and more than 80% on an “intent-to-treat” (ITT) analysis.
Blastocystis hominis is a common microscopic parasitic organism found throughout the world. Infection with Blastocystis hominis is called blastocystosis (BLASS-toe-SIS-toe-sis.)
The anorectum is a specialized region of the gastrointestinal tract, performing sensory, storage and elimination functions. The mucosal lining in the rectum is columnar. It transitions to a squamous mucosa in the anal canal. It is richly endowed with discriminatory nerve endings to allow the body to distinguish between flatus, liquid and solid waste. While sturdy, the mucosal surfaces are vulnerable to trauma and infections. With or without an anal or rectal injury, sexually transmitted disease may be the source of considerable morbidity. While symptoms may be found in patients with normal immune systems, they are found in increasing frequency in the immunocompromised population. In patients with pre-existing systemic conditions such as AIDS or HIV, common pathogens may take on an even more ominous clinical significance. Part I of this two-part article contains a discussion of the anorectal manifestations of the most common sexually transmitted diseases.
At any given time in the United States, twenty million men and women have an active Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Five million new cases are diagnosed each year. These represent one third of all cases of newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. In addition to the morbidity of the disease itself, HPV is strongly associated with the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Hence, this ubiquitous virus has taken on a more menacing significance than simply that of an inconvenient sexually transmitted disease.
The term Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) describes the microscopic finding of dysplastic, non-malignant cells in the anal canal. AIN has been subdivided into AIN I, II, and III, representing low, moderate, and high-grade dysplasia. This dysplasia has been thought to arise as a result of local infection with the Human papillomavirus. The Human papillomavirus is a small double-stranded DNA virus with a diameter of 55 nm. and is encased in a protein capsid. The term AIN has gradually replaced other descriptive terminology such as atypical squamous cells of indeterminate significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).